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Barbour's life story cannot be reconstructed in detail; but much more is known, or can be reasonably deduced, about him than about many mediaeval figures. The post of Archdeacon (that is, a church official second in rank to a bishop, with responsibility for distributing charities, presiding over meetings of the church court and supervising appointments to lower orders, including priesthood) was in his hands from 1357 till his death in 1395. The earlier period of his life is obscure: we know that he was precentor of the cathedral at Dunkeld in 1355, and very little else: neither the date nor the place of his birth is recorded. We cannot even say with certainty that he was an Aberdonian, except by adoption: there are, indeed, powerful arguments for the view that he came originally from the south-
As Archdeacon of Aberdeen, Barbour earned high renown. He travelled widely throughout the extensive diocese, and must have become a well-
In his time, this Archdeacon of Aberdeen earned a reputation that spread far beyond the bounds of his diocese. His greatest legacy to posterity, however, is his epic poem. We have no direct evidence of what prompted him to write it; but we may conjecture. Barbour lived during one of the least glorious ages in Scottish history. Robert Bruce's achievement in securing Scotland's independence had been almost undone during his son's minority; and David II's reign was a gloomy period of disorder at home and chronic warfare with England. Robert II, elderly and almost blind when he came to the throne, was an even weaker ruler, and with his son Robert III, who succeeded him in 1390, royal government reached a nadir: it is indeed strange that the brilliant saga of the House of Stewart should have begun so ingloriously. Could Barbour have wished to inspire the feeble kings of his time to rule in a manner more worthy of their great ancestor, and their lawless subjects to display the loyalty which Bruce's lords showed to him? We know that Barbour wrote a history of the House of Stewart from its origins: quite possibly at the suggestion of Robert II, who may have hoped thereby to increase his personal prestige. Perhaps his epic on the heroic career of Robert Bruce was a pointed comment on the reason for the reigning king's lack of popularity: not that his family had only recently become royal — Bruce himself had technically usurped the throne — but that, being enthroned, he had failed to provide decisive leadership.
Barbour’s poetic treatment of the life and achievements of Robert Bruce is on a scale, and of a quality, worthy of its subject. Rapid and lively in its action, abounding in realistic dialogue passages, full of exciting and vividly-
However, to appreciate the full measure of Barbour’s achievement, it is useful to consider his epic not only as it appeals to modern readers but against the literary background of its own time. The type of poem known as "romance", in which the deeds of a hero such as Hector of Troy, King Arthur or Charlemagne were recounted on an epic scale, was a popular genre throughout Europe in the Middle Ages; and the Brus stands firmly within this tradition. Yet in many respects Barbour’s choice and treatment of his subject is highly innovative. Firstly, it is in Scots — in a vernacular tongue instead of Latin or a language with a long literary tradition like French — and its hero is not a semi-
Next, though Bruce in the poem is as heroic as Hector or Sir Lancelot, his heroism consists not simply in an ability to fight bravely; and though Barbour is among the most ardently patriotic of poets, he does not naively equate Bruce’s or Scotland’s cause with the right side. The poem is written from a moral stance far more elevated than this: Barbour is at pains to argue that the English put themselves morally in the wrong, not simply by fighting against the Scots, but by making an unprovoked attack on a smaller and weaker country which had shown no hostility to them. Patriotism is a virtue in Barbour’s poem and inspires men to great deeds, but patriotism operates in the service of a higher moral imperative, the duty to fight against those who would break God’s law by acts of oppression and robbery. Barbour is ready to criticise his heroes -
In Barbour’s Brus, then, we have a worthy opening to the splendid tradition of Lowland Scots literature: a thrilling narrative poem of doughty deeds, written with a churchman’s awareness of right and justice, and researched with sufficient care to make it a major source of historical information. The Friends of St Machar’s Cathedral have every cause to take pride in the legacy of this great mediaeval Archdeacon of Aberdeen.
The best edition of "The Brus" is by M.P MacDiarmid and A.C. Stevenson, ed. Scottish Text Society, 1980-